Listed below are some of the more commonly performed reproductive surgeries. The notes are a compilation of some of the techniques that the authors use and are not intended as an exhausting, heavily referenced treatise of all available techniques. No attempt has been made to discuss all reproductive techniques or conditions requiring intervention. The procedures work well for us, however readers should be aware that different methods are employed successfully by others. We would be grateful to those who have different ideas and experiences if they would communicate them. We have assumed that readers are familiar at least with both relevant anatomy and standard documented surgical correction of reproductive related problems. Topics for discussion have been dictated by our perceived incidence of necessity and preference for an individual or alternate technique when many exist.
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Trace the inguinal canal to the external inguinal ring. Trace the retractor penis muscle around the anus and distally on the body of the penis. Note that the crura are covered by ischiocavernosus muscles. Ungulate females lack a vaginal ring but the round ligament of the uterus can be traced to the locale where the vaginal ring is found in the male animal.